USS Atlanta (CL-51)
USS Atlanta (CL-51) was the name ship of the Atlanta class of light cruisers, and had a short wartime career in the Solomon Islands, before being sunk at the naval battle of Guadalcanal (13-15 November 1942). Despite her short active career, the Atlanta was awarded five battle stars.
The Atlanta was launched on 6 September 1941 and commissioned on 24 December 1941, just after the American entry into the Second World War. Her shakedown cruise lasted until 13 March and she was ready for service by the end of the month. On 5 April she left New York heading for the Pacific. On her way across the Pacific she searched Clipperton Islands, 670 miles to the south-west of Acapulco, for any signs of Japanese activity, but found none.
She left Pearl Harbor on 10 May as part of the escort for the ammo ship Rainier (AE-5) and the oiler Kaskaskia (AO-27). After getting them safely to Noumea in New Caledonia, she joined Task Force 16 (Admiral Halsey), built around the carriers Enterprise (CV-6) and Hornet (CV-8). She took part in the battle of Midway (3-7 June 1942), acting as part of the screen for the Hornet. She was thus not involved in the main part of the battle, and didn't fire her guns in anger.
At the end of July the Atlanta was allocated to Task Force 61, part of the fleet that supported the invasion of Guadalcanal. On 7-8 August 1942 she screened the carriers as they carried out strikes in support of the invasion. She stayed with the carriers when they withdrew on 9 August.
The Atlanta took part in the battle of the Eastern Solomons (24-25 August 1942). This was triggered by a Japanese attempt to get a convoy to Guadalcanal, supported by elements of the Combined Fleet. This triggered a carrier battle in which the Enterprise came under heavy attack. The Atlanta formed part of the carrier's anti-aircraft screen during this attack, claiming five victories. The Enterprise suffered several direct hits and near misses in the attack and was out of action until mid-October.
On the day after the battle the Atlanta joined TF 11 (TF 61 from 30 August). On 31 August the Saratoga was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-26. Atlanta formed part of the screen for the damaged carrier as she was towed to safety. In mid-September she escorted an ammo ship and an aircraft transport to Noumea, then in early October acted as an escort for transport ships heading towards Guadalcanal. She was then allocated to Rear Admiral Willis Lee's TF 64, part of the force operating closer to Guadalcanal.
She joined this task force in time to take part in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands (26 October 1942), again triggered by an attack by the Japanese Combined Fleet. During the battle the Atlanta operated with the Washington (BB-56), San Francisco(CA-38), Helena (CL-50) and two destroyers. During the battle she provided part of the escort for the fuelling support group. The battle ended with both fleets withdrawing - the Japanese because their land attack on Guadalcanal had failed, the Americans because the carrier Hornet had been sunk and the Enterprise was unable to operate. Admiral Norman Scott transferred his flag to the Atlanta, which became flagship of TG 64.2, and she stayed close to Guadalcanal.
On 30 October she took part in a shore bombardment of Guadalcanal. In early November the task group escorted one transport ship and two cargo ships to Guadalcanal, and guarded them as they unloaded their cargoes. On 11 November the Altanta and her destroyer escorts fought off two Japanese air attacks, preventing the valuable transports from suffering any damage. Another air attack on 12 November was no more successful.
These air attacks were the opening phase of another major Japanese naval offensive, which triggered the naval battle of Guadalcanal (13-15 November 1942). The Japanese had four naval forces - a support force, two bombardment forces which were to attack the American positions, and a transport group that was to get reinforcements onto the island. Atlanta was now part of TG 67.4 (Admiral Callaghan), which was given the task of escorting vulnerable transport vessels away from the landing beaches. Once this had been done, the force turned back west to face the Japanese.
The two fleets almost ran into each in the dark. The Atlanta became involved in a duel with the Japanese destroyer Akatsuki. One long lance torpedo from the Japanese destroyer hit the Atlanta in her forward engine room, knocking out all but auxiliary diesel power. In return the Atlanta shot out the Akatsuki's searchlight, and the Japanese destroyer was sunk by a combination of fire from the Atlanta and the San Francisco.
The Atlanta then became a victim of friendly fire. In the confusion of the night battle the San Francisco hit her with nineteen 8-inch shells. Most passed straight through the thinly armoured Atlanta without exploding, but they did fling deadly fragments throughout the vessel. Amongst the dead was Admiral Scott. Captain Jenkins, commander of the ship, was wounded but was able to retain command.
An attempt was made to save the Atlanta. The seriously wounded were evacuated to Gualalcanal, and she was put under tow. By around 2pm it was clear that the ship was sinking. Captain Jenkins was given permission to abandon ship, and she was scuttled three miles west of Lunga Point. Captain Jenkins was awarded the Navy Cross for his efforts during the battle, while the ship was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation.
8,500 nm @ 15kts
Armour – belt
- armour deck
- deck over underwater magazines
541ft 6in oa
Sixteen 5in/38 guns (eight two-gun turrets)
22 April 1940
6 September 1941
24 December 1941
13 November 1942
USS Atlanta (CL-51) - History
Description: History of the U.S. Navy cruiser USS Atlanta (CL-51) including information about asbestos exposure for workers.
The USS Atlanta (CL-51) was ordered for the U.S. Navy before World War II. Her keel was laid down by the Federal Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company on April 22, 1940. She was launched on September 6, 1941 and commissioned on December 24, 1941 under the command of Captain Samuel P. Jenkins.
USS Atlanta arrived at Pearl Harbor on April 23, 1942. After a few weeks of antiaircraft practice, the cruiser set off on May 10 to escort the USS Rainier and USS Kaskaskia to Nouméa. Six days later, she joined Task Force 16, which was built around the USS Enterprise, as they headed for Pearl Harbor. On May 28, she departed with Task Force 16 to screen the carriers as they sailed for Midway. The cruiser remained as part of the screening force for the Battle of Midway until June 11, when the ships returned to Pearl Harbor.
After antiaircraft practice and refitting, the USS Atlanta conducted gunnery practice and shore bombardment training in Hawaiian waters. One July 15, she sailed with Task Force 16 to Tongatapu. The cruiser was transferred to Task Force 61 on July 29 for the invasion of Guadalcanal. She screened the carriers as they supported the troop landings on August 7-8 and remained in the area to support operations for the next few days.
Following the invasion of Guadalcanal, USS Atlanta continued to screen the USS Enterprise as she launched her aircraft against Japanese carriers. She fought off intense enemy air attacks on August 24, but even her heavy antiaircraft fire couldn’t protect the USS Enterprise from one direct hit and five near hits.
The next day, the USS Atlanta joined up with Task Force 11, which was renamed Task Force 61 on August 30. The cruiser screened the USS Saratoga when it was torpedoed by the Japanese submarine I-26 on August 31, allowing the USS Minneapolis to tow the damaged ship to safety. She and the rest of the task force put in at Tongatapu on September 6 for refitting.
One week later, USS Atlanta escorted the USS Lassen and USS Hammondsport to Nouméa. After refueling, she joined Task Group 66.4 on September 21 and became a member of Task Force 17 two days later. She was then detached to escort the USS Washington, USS Walke, and USS Benham to Tongatapu.
The USS Atlanta escorted transports to Guadalcanal in mid-October. On October 15, she joined Task Force 64 in the ongoing operations at Guadalcanal. She became the flagship for Rear Admiral Norman Scott’s Task Group 64.2 on October 28. Two days later, she bombarded Japanese shore targets at Guadalcanal before putting in at Espiritu Santo on Halloween.
After refitting, USS Atlanta escorted USS Zeilin, USS Libra, and USS Betelgeuse to Guadalcanal as Task Group 62.4. The transports unloaded their troops and supplies on November 12. That morning, enemy aircraft attacked the ships, though the three transports sustained only minor damage. Later that afternoon, a force of 25 Japanese bombers attacked. The cruiser claimed to splash two of the planes. The only damage taken by the U.S. force was when a damaged enemy aircraft crashed into the superstructure of the USS San Francisco.
The attack wasn’t over yet, as Japanese surface forces arrived later that night: two battleships, six destroyers, and one cruiser. During the ensuing Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the USS Atlanta was torpedoes by the Japanese destroyer Akatsuki. In the darkness and confusion of battle, the cruiser was struck by 19 shells from the USS San Francisco, killing Admiral Scott and many other crew members.
The following morning, the USS Bobolink arrived to tow the USS Atlanta to Lunga Point, but it became obvious that the ship was beyond saving. The orders came down to abandon ship, and a demolition party scuttled the ship. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on January 13, 1943. The cruiser earned five battle stars and the Presidential Unit Citation for her service in World War II.
Like other ships from the World War II era, the USS Atlanta was built using asbestos-containing materials. Asbestos was known for its resistance to heat, fire, water, and corrosion, so the toxic substance could be found in virtually all areas of the cruiser. Anyone who served onboard the USS Atlanta or participated in her repair and overhaul was put at risk of developing asbestos-related illnesses like mesothelioma, throat cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, and asbestosis.
USS Atlanta workers should monitor their health carefully, and consult a doctor if they experience any symptoms associated with mesothelioma. Anyone who worked in or around the USS Atlanta, and is diagnosed with mesothelioma, should also consider contacting a lawyer to discuss their legal rights.
The original main gun battery of the Atlanta-class was composed of eight dual 5 inch/38 caliber (127 mm) gun mounts (8x2 5-inch guns). This battery could fire over 17,600 pounds (10,560 kg) of shells per minute, including the radar-fuzed "VT" antiaircraft shells. Four of the ships, beginning with Oakland, had their two "wing" mounts of dual 5 inch guns replaced with eight of the highly effective Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns. The Atlanta-class cruisers were the only class of U.S. Navy cruisers commissioned during World War II to be armed with torpedoes tubes, with eight 21" torpedo tubes in two quad launchers. Ώ]
The class was designed with a substantial secondary anti-aircraft armament of sixteen 1.1 in guns in quad mounts, later replaced by 40 mm anti-aircraft guns, and 6 20 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft cannons. More of these weapons were added as the war progressed to counter the danger of Japanese air attacks (especially kamikazes). Oakland was launched with eight Bofors 40 mm guns and sixteen 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons. Although ships of the class were planned as destroyer flotilla leaders, the original design did not include anti-submarine armament such as sonar or depth charge tracks these were added later. When the vessels were determined to be more valuable as protection against aircraft, the tracks were removed. ΐ]
The class was powered by four 665 psi boilers, connected to 2 geared steam turbines producing 75,000 hp (56 MW), and the ships could maintain a top speed of 33.6 knots (62 km/h). On trial the Atlanta made 33.67 knots (62 km/h) and 78,985 shp (58,899 kW). The ships of the Atlanta-class had thin armor: a maximum of 3.5 in (88.9 mm) on their sides, with the captain's bridge and the 5-inch gun mounts being protected by only 1.25 in (31.75 mm). ΐ]
The ships were originally designed for 26 officers and 523 men, but this increased to 35 officers and 638 men with the first four ships, and 45 officers and 766 men with the second group of four ships beginning with Oakland. The ships were also designed as flagships with additional space for a flag officer and his staff but the additional space was used for additional crew necessary to man anti-aircraft weapons and electronics. Α]
After fitting out, Atlanta conducted shakedown training until 13 March, first in Chesapeake Bay and then in Maine's Casco Bay, after which she returned to the New York Navy Yard for post-shakedown repairs and alterations. Adjudged to be "ready for distant service" on 31 March, the new cruiser departed New York for the Panama Canal Zone on 5 April. She reached Cristobal on the 8th. After transiting the isthmian waterway, Atlanta then cleared Balboa on 12 April with orders to reconnoiter Clipperton Island, a tiny barren, uninhabited atoll about 670 mi (1,080 km) southwest of Acapulco, Mexico, in the course of her voyage to the Hawaiian Islands, for any signs of enemy activity. Finding none, she ultimately reached Pearl Harbor on 23 April.
Battle of Midway
Punctuating her brief stay in Hawaiian waters with an antiaircraft practice off Oahu on 3 May, Atlanta, in company with McCall, sailed on 10 May as escort for Rainier and Kaskaskia, bound for Nouméa, New Caledonia. On 16 May, she joined Vice Admiral William F. Halsey's Task Force 16 (TF 16), formed around Enterprise) and Hornet, as it steamed back to Pearl Harbor, having been summoned back to Hawaiian waters in response to an imminent Japanese thrust in the direction of Midway Atoll. TF 16 arrived at Pearl on 26 May.
Atlanta again sailed with TF 16 on the morning of the 28th. Over the days that followed, she screened the carriers as they operated northwest of Midway in anticipation of the enemy's arrival. At the report of Japanese ships to the southwest, on the morning of 4 June, Atlanta cleared for action as she screened Hornet. Squadrons from the American carriers sought out the Japanese, and during that day, planes from Yorktown and Enterprise inflicted mortal damage on four irreplaceable enemy flattops. Japanese planes twice hit TF 17, and it took the brunt of the enemy attacks. Over the days that followed the Battle of Midway, Atlanta remained in the screen of TF 16 until 11 June, when the task force received orders to return to Pearl Harbor.
Reaching her destination on 13 June, Atlanta, outside of brief period of antiaircraft practice on 21 and 25–26 June, remained in port, taking on stores and provisions and standing on 24-hour and then 48-hour alert into July 1942. Drydocked on 1–2 July so that her bottom could be scraped, cleaned and painted, the cruiser completed her availability on the 6th and then resumed a busy schedule of gunnery practice with drone targets, high-speed sleds, and in shore bombardment in the Hawaiian operating area.
On 15 July 1942, Atlanta, again in TF 16, sailed for Tongatapu. Anchoring at Nukuʻalofa, Tonga on 24 July, where she fueled Maury and then took on fuel from Mobilube, the light cruiser pushed on later the same day and overtook TF 16. On 29 July, as all preparations proceeded for the invasion of Guadalcanal, Atlanta was assigned to TF 61.
Screening the carriers as they launched air strikes to support the initial landings on 7–8 August, Atlanta remained there until the withdrawal of the carrier task forces on the 9th. For the next several days, she remained at sea, replenishing when necessary while the task force operated near the Solomons.
Battle of the Eastern Solomons
As the Americans consolidated their gains on Guadalcanal, the critical need for reinforcements prompted Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto to send the Combined Fleet south to cover a large troop convoy. American scout planes spotted the Japanese forces on the morning of 23 August. With the enemy reported to the northwest, Enterprise and Saratoga launched search and attack planes, but they failed to make contact because of deteriorating weather and the fact that the Japanese, knowing that they had been spotted, reversed course.
Throughout the day on 24 August, Atlanta received enemy contact reports and screened Enterprise as she launched a strike group to attack the Japanese carriers. The sighting of an enemy "snooper" at 1328 sent Atlanta ' s sailors to general quarters, where they remained for the next 5½ hours. At 1530, the cruiser worked up to 20 kn (23 mph 37 km/h) as TF 16 stood roughly north-northwestward "to close [the] reported enemy carrier group." At 1637, with unidentified planes approaching, Atlanta went to 25 kn (29 mph 46 km/h). Enterprise then launched a strike group shortly thereafter, completing the evolution at 1706.
In the meantime, the incoming enemy bombers and fighter aircraft from Shōkaku and Zuikaku prompted the task force to increase speed to 27 kn (31 mph 50 km/h), shortly after Enterprise completed launching her own aircraft, the Japanese raid, estimated by Captain Jenkins to consist of at least 18 Aichi D3A1 "Val" dive bombers, came in from the north northwest at 1710. Over the next 11 minutes, Atlanta ' s 5 in (130 mm), 1.1 in (28 mm) and 20 mm batteries contributed to the barrage over Enterprise, as the light cruiser conformed to Enterprise ' s every move as she maneuvered violently to avoid the dive bombers.
Despite the heavy antiaircraft fire, Enterprise took one hit and suffered some shrapnel damage from an estimated five near hits. Captain Jenkins later reported that his ship may have shot down five of the attackers.
Reporting to TF 11 for duty the following day, Atlanta operated with that force, redesignated TF 61 on 30 August, over the next few days. When I-26 torpedoed Saratoga on 31 August, the light cruiser screened the stricken flagship as Minneapolis rigged a towline and began taking her out of danger. The force ultimately put into Tongatapu on 6 September, where Atlanta provisioned ship, fueled from New Orleans, and enjoyed a period of upkeep.
Underway on 13 September, the light cruiser escorted Lassen and Hammondsport on the 15th. After seeing her charges safely to their destination at Dumbea Bay, Nouméa, on the 19th, Atlanta fueled, took on stores and ammunition, and sailed on the 21st as part of Task Group 66.4 (TG 66.4). Becoming part of TF 17 on 23 September, the light cruiser was detached the following day to proceed in company with Washington, Walke and Benham to Tongatapu, which she reached on the 26th.
Underway with those same ships on 7 October, Atlanta briefly escorted Guadalcanal-bound transports from 11–14 October, before putting into Espiritu Santo for fuel on the afternoon of the 15th. Assigned then to Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee's TF 64, the ship sailed after dark that same day to resume operations covering the ongoing efforts to secure Guadalcanal. Returning briefly to Espiritu Santo for fuel, stores and provisions, the warship stood out from Segond Channel on the afternoon of 23 October.
Two days later, with a Japanese Army offensive having failed to eject the Americans from Guadalcanal, Admiral Yamamoto sent the Combined Fleet south in an attempt to annihilate the American naval forces doggedly supporting the marines. Atlanta operated in TF 64, along with Washington, San Francisco, Helena and two destroyers, as the opposing forces engaged in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands on 26 October. That day, Atlanta patrolled astern of the fueling group supporting the two American carrier task forces. On the 27th, when I-15 attacked TF 64, the force maneuvered at high speed to clear the area.
On the morning of the 28th, Atlanta brought on board Rear Admiral Norman Scott from San Francisco, and became the flagship of the newly designated TG 64.2. After fueling from Washington, Atlanta, screened by four destroyers, headed northwest to shell Japanese positions on Guadalcanal. Reaching the waters off Lunga Point on the morning of the 30th, Atlanta embarked Marine liaison officers at 0550, and then steamed west, commencing her bombardment of Point Cruz at 0629 while the destroyers formed a column astern. Provoking no return fire, TG 64.2 accomplished its mission and returned to Lunga Point, where Atlanta disembarked the liaison officers. She then proceeded, in company with her screen, to Espiritu Santo, where she arrived on the afternoon of 31 October.
Naval Battle of Guadalcanal
Atlanta served as Admiral Scott's flagship as the light cruiser, accompanied by four destroyers, escorted Zeilin, Libra and Betelgeuse to Guadalcanal. The cruiser and her consorts continued to screen those ships, designated TG 62.4, as they lay off Lunga Point on 12 November unloading supplies and disembarking troops.
At 0905, the task group received a report that nine bombers and 12 fighters were approaching from the northwest, and would reach their vicinity at about 0930. At about 0920, Atlanta led the three auxiliaries to the north in column, with the destroyers spaced in a circle around them. 15 minutes later, nine "Vals" from Hiyō emerged from the clouds over Henderson Field, the American airstrip on Guadalcanal. The American ships opened fire soon after, putting up a barrage that downed "several" planes. Fortunately, none of the primary targets of the attack, Zeilin, Libra and Betelgeuse, suffered more than minor damage from several close calls, though Zeilin sustained some flooding. The three auxiliaries returned to the waters off Lunga Point as soon as the attack ended and resumed working cargo and disembarking troops.
A little over an hour later, at 1050, Atlanta received word of another incoming Japanese air raid. 15 minutes later, Atlanta led the three auxiliaries north with the destroyers in a circle around the disposition. The "bogeys", 27 Mitsubishi G4M "Bettys" from Rabaul, closed, sighted bearing west by north, approaching from over Cape Esperance in a very loose "V" formation. Although the destroyers opened fire, the planes proved to be out of range and the ships checked fire. The "Bettys", for their part, ignored the ships and continued on to bomb Henderson Field. Upon the disappearance of the planes, TG 62.4 resumed unloading off Lunga Point.
On 12 November, Atlanta was still off Lunga Point, screening the unloading, as part of TF 67 under Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan in San Francisco. At about 1310, Atlanta received a warning that 25 enemy planes were headed for Guadalcanal, slated to arrive within 50 minutes. The light cruiser went to general quarters at 1318 and received the signal "prepare to repel air attack. "
Within six minutes, Atlanta and the other combatants of the support group formed a screen around the transport group (TG 67.1), and the two groups steamed north together at 15 kn (17 mph 28 km/h). At about 1410, the Americans sighted the incoming raid, consisting of what appeared to be 25 twin-engined bombers ("Bettys") which broke up into two groups after clearing Florida Island, came in at altitudes that ranged from 25 to 50 ft (8 to 16m). Juneau opened fire at 1412. Atlanta did so a minute later, training her guns at planes headed for the gap in the screen between San Francisco and Buchanan. Atlanta claimed to have shot down two "Bettys", just after they dropped their torpedoes, at about 1415, only three minutes before the attack ended. Once the last Japanese plane had been splashed, the work of unloading the transports and cargo ships resumed. One "Betty", crippled by antiaircraft fire, crashed into the after superstructure of San Francisco, inflicting the only damage on the force.
The abrupt end of the air attack gave Atlanta and her colleagues only a brief respite, however, for trouble approached from yet another quarter. A Japanese surface force, made up of two battleships, one cruiser and six destroyers, was detected steaming south toward Guadalcanal to shell Henderson Field. Admiral Callaghan's support group was to "cover [the retiring transports and cargo vessels] again enemy attack." TG 67.4 departed Lunga Point about 1800 and steamed eastward through Sealark Channel, covering the withdrawal of TG 67.1. An hour before midnight, Callaghan's ships reversed course and headed westward.
Helena ' s radar picked up the first contact at a range of 26,000 yd (24,000 m). As the range closed, Atlanta ' s surface search radar, followed by her gunnery radars, picked up a contact on the enemy ships.
Admiral Callaghan's order for a course change caused problems almost at once, as Atlanta had to turn to port (left) immediately to avoid a collision with one of the four destroyers in the van, the latter having apparently executed a "ships left" rather than "column left" movement. As Atlanta began moving to resume her station ahead of San Francisco, the Japanese destroyer Akatsuki [ 1 ] illuminated the light cruiser and immediately suffered the consequences. Atlanta shifted her main battery to fire at the enemy destroyer, opening fire at a range of about 1,600 yd (1,500 m) and, along with other US ships that concentrated on Akatsuki’s searchlights, simply overwhelmed the hapless destroyer. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
As two other Japanese destroyers crossed her line, Atlanta engaged both with her forward 5 in (130 mm) mounts, while her after mounts continued to blast away at the illuminated ship. An additional, unidentified assailant also opened up on the light cruiser from the northeast. At about that time, at least one torpedo plowed into Atlanta's forward engine room from the port side, fired almost certainly by either Inazuma or Ikazuchi [ 4 ] (Akatsuki’s destroyer consorts). Atlanta lost all but auxiliary diesel power, suffered the interruption of her gunfire, and had to shift steering control to the steering engine room aft. Meanwhile Akatsuki, now a floating charnel house, drifted out of the action and soon sank with heavy loss of life. Michiharu Shinya, Akatsuki's Chief Torpedo Officer, one of her few survivors, was rescued the next day by US Forces and spent the rest of the war in a New Zealand Prisoner Of War camp. [ 5 ] (He latter stated unequivocally that Akatsuki had not been be able to fire any torpedoes that night before being overwhelmed by gunfire. [ 6 ] )
Soon after being torpedoed, Atlanta was then hit by an estimated nineteen 8-inch (200 mm) shells when San Francisco, "in the urgency of battle, darkness, and confused intermingling of friend or foe", fired at her. Though almost all of the shells passed through the thin skin of the ship without detonating, scattering green dye, fragments from their impact killed many men, including Admiral Scott and members of his staff. Atlanta prepared to return fire on her new assailant, but San Francisco's own gun flashes disclosed a distinctly "non-Japanese hull profile" that resulted in a suspension of those efforts. San Francisco's shells, which passed high through Atlanta's superstructure, may have been intended for a Japanese target further beyond her from San Francisco's perspective. [ 7 ]
After the 8 in (200 mm) fire ceased, Atlanta ' s Captain Jenkins took stock of the situation, and, having only a minor foot wound, made his way aft to Battle II. His ship was badly battered, largely powerless, down by the head and listing slightly to port, and a third of his crew was dead or missing. As the battle continued, the light cruiser's men began clearing debris, jettisoning topside weight to correct the list, reducing the volume of sea water in the ship, and succoring the many wounded.
Daylight revealed the presence nearby of three burning American destroyers, the disabled Portland, and the abandoned hulk of Yudachi, which Portland summarily dispatched with three salvoes. Atlanta, drifting toward the enemy-held shore east of Cape Esperance, dropped her starboard anchor, and her captain sent a message to Portland explaining the light cruiser's condition. Boats from Guadalcanal came out to take her most critically wounded. By mid-morning, all of those had been taken.
Bobolink arrived at 0930 on 13 November, took Atlanta under tow, made harder by the cruiser's still lowered anchor, and headed toward Lunga Point. During the voyage, a "Betty" bomber neared the disposition, and one of the two surviving 5 in (130 mm) mounts, the one powered by a diesel generator, fired and drove it off. The other mount, on manual control, could not be trained around in time.
Atlanta reached Kukum about 1400, at which point Captain Jenkins conferred with his remaining officers. As Jenkins, who was later awarded a Navy Cross for his heroism during the battle, later wrote, "It was by now apparent that efforts to save the ship were useless, and that the water was gaining steadily." Even had sufficient salvage facilities been available, he allowed, the severe damage she had taken would have made it difficult to save the ship. Authorized by Commander, South Pacific Forces, to act at his own discretion regarding the destruction of the ship, Jenkins ordered that Atlanta be abandoned and sunk with a demolition charge.
Accordingly, all remaining men except the captain and a demolition party boarded Higgins boats sent out from Guadalcanal for the purpose. After the charge had been set and exploded, the last men left the battered ship. Ultimately, at 2015 on 13 November 1942, Atlanta sank 3 mi (5 km) west of Lunga Point in about 400 ft (120 m) of water. Her name was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 13 January 1943.
The Wreck (A Brief History)
The wreck of USS Atlanta was first discovered on an expedition led by Dr Robert Ballard (famous for leading the expeditions that discovered RMS Titanic and DKM Bismarck) in 1992 using an ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle). Unfortunately difficult ocean conditions, i.e. strong ocean currents and poor underwater visibility precluded the expedition from thoroughly exploring Atlanta. Two years later, in 1994, two Australian ‘technical divers’ Rob Cason and Kevin Denlay traveled to the Solomon Islands with the express intent to be the first scuba divers to dive Atlanta, but unfortunately, owing to the lack of a suitable surface support vessel and strong surface currents were unsuccessful. (This was the first mixed gas scuba diving expedition to Guadalcanal.)
They did however manage to dive one of the two deepest diveable wrecks (other than Atlanta), the Japanese transport Asumasan Maru which is almost 90 meters deep at the stern - the other being the Sasako Maru which Denlay dived the next year, and which reaches to over 90 meters in the collapsed debris field of the ‘bridge’. (Although many other World War II wrecks discovered by Dr Ballard lie in Iron Bottom Sound, they are beyond the range for even the most experienced scuba divers to dive, only accessible by ROV’s or submersibles. See the book The Lost Ships of Guadalcanal by Robert Ballard.) That very same year, i.e. 1995, Denlay returned with his then dive buddy, American Terrance Tysall, and successfully dived USS Atlanta for the first time, the very first scuba divers to have ever done so and at the time the deepest wreck dive by free swimming divers in the southern hemisphere.
In the following years Denlay and Tysall mounted several larger manned expeditions dedicated specifically to surveying Atlanta - exploring and videoing the wreck in detail to a depth of 430 ft / 130mts (her bow. [ 8 ] Unfortunately, civil unrest that commenced in late 1998 suspended diving activities on Guadalcanal for a couple of years, but during their final expedition that year Kevin’s wife Mirja made (on Atlanta) what at the time was the deepest wreck dive by a woman anywhere in the world. Denlays’ last visit to the wreck was in 2002 using a closed circuit rebreather or CCR, at the time the first CCR dive on Atlanta. [ 9 ] Since then very few dives have been conducted on Atlanta, although in May 2011 a very experienced deep diving team from the Global Underwater Explorers successfully completed an expedition that video’d the wreck for documentary purposes, the first ‘survey’ of the wreck since Denlay’s expeditions in the late ‘90’s.
După punerea în funcțiune, pe 24 decembrie 1941, și-a făcut călătoria inițială de -a lungul coastei atlantice americane . La începutul lunii aprilie 1942 a stabilit cursul pentru Pacific .
Prima ta misiune din timpul războiului din Pacific a fost însoțirea unui convoi din Pacificul de Sud. Apoi a fost repartizată în grupul de lucru cu portavioanele Enterprise și Hornet , cu care a participat la bătălia de la Midway din iunie 1942 .
La mijlocul lunii iulie 1942, nava a părăsit Pearl Harbor pentru a participa la operațiuni în Pacificul de Sud. La începutul bătăliei de la Guadalcanal, la începutul lunii august, ea a escortat portavioanele care susțineau debarcările pe Guadalcanal și Tulagi .
Mai târziu , în luna însoțite Atlanta Enterprise în Bătălia de Insulele Solomon de Est și a protejat Saratoga dupa aceasta de un japonez torpilă a fost lovit.
În următoarele câteva luni, sarcina lor principală a fost protejarea unităților mai mici în timpul bătăliei în curs pentru Guadalcanal. După bătălia din Insulele Santa Cruz , în care a fost implicată doar de la distanță, și-au mutat operațiunile din ce în ce mai aproape de insula principală. La 30 octombrie, Atlanta a bombardat pozițiile japoneze pe Guadalcanal cu armele lor și, aproximativ două săptămâni mai târziu , armele antiaeriene au tras avioane japoneze care au atacat navele de transport și aprovizionare americane.
În noaptea de 12 spre 13 noiembrie 1942, pilotul Atlanta al unei forțe de lucru sub controlul amiralului Norman Scott , care consta din crucișătoare și distrugătoare și avea ordinul de a intercepta navele japoneze care doreau să bombardeze Henderson Field pe Guadalcanal. Următoarea bătălie navală de la Guadalcanal a fost o bătălie haotică care a fost purtată pe vreme rea și cu vizibilitate limitată. Este considerat a fi una dintre cele mai brutale bătălii pe mare din cel de-al doilea război mondial și ambele părți au suferit pierderi materiale și de personal ridicate. Atlanta a suferit leziuni grave de la un hit torpilă japoneză și artilerie mai departe de foc de la inamic și nave deținute. Contraamiralul Scott a fost ucis în atacuri. Deși echipajul a încercat să salveze nava toată ziua de 13 noiembrie, aceasta a fost abandonată și scufundată după-amiaza la ordinul comandantului lor.
În Atlanta se află pe ei babord off Lunga Point , în Savo Sound cunoscut ca Ironbottom sunet. Epava a fost investigată folosind ROV-uri în 1991 și 1992 . Scafandrii au vizitat ulterior naufragiul. În 2011, Atlanta , care are o adâncime de 130 m, a fost scufundată și filmată din nou. Documentarul Return to the USS Atlanta a fost creat din filmări .
USS Atlanta CL-51 Atlanta Class Light Cruiser ( 1:1 )
USS Atlanta (CL-51) of the United States Navy was the lead ship of the Atlanta class of eight light cruisers. She was the third Navy ship named after the city of Atlanta, Georgia. Designed to provide anti-aircraft protection for US naval task groups, Atlanta served in this capacity in the naval battles Midway and the Eastern Solomons. Atlanta was heavily damaged by Japanese and friendly gunfire in a night surface action on 13 November 1942 during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. The cruiser was sunk on her captain's orders in the afternoon of the same day.
Atlanta , in some works, is designated CLAA-51 because of her primary armament as an anti-aircraft cruiser. Hence, all of the Atlanta -class ships are sometimes designated as CLAA. However, her entire battery of 5-inch (127 mm) guns were dual-purpose (DP) guns, and were capable of being used against both air and surface targets, able to fire anti-aircraft, high-explosive and armor-piercing shells.
The Atlanta -class ships were lightly armored, making them poor surface combatants compared to a typical light cruiser. In terms of armament, the Atlanta class was closer to a destroyer, being armed with 5-inch guns, than a light cruiser, which were generally equipped with 6-inch guns but at well over 500 feet (152 m) in length, and combined with their large battery of sixteen 5-inch (127 mm) guns (reduced to twelve in number for later ships of the class), they were designated as light cruisers. Typical destroyers of the time only carried five or six 5-inch guns. [ citation needed ] Despite being under-armored for light cruisers, they had thicker armor than destroyers, which were notoriously underprotected.
USS Atlanta (CL-51) - History
USS Atlanta is the lead ship of her class of eight light cruisers, initially built for the USN as flotilla leaders in the late 1930s. Soon, captains in War Thunder may look forward to having the chance to command the iconic USS Atlanta herself, upon her arrival in the game as part of the upcoming update 1.91!
Briefly: A lightly armored, yet heavily armed American light cruiser, possessing excellent versatility thanks to its sixteen 5-inch dual purpose cannons!
USS Atlanta, light cruiser, USA, IV rank.
➖ Only light caliber cannons
➖ Relatively lightly protected
Atlanta-class light cruisers came to being in the late 1930s, during which the US Navy was considering a multitude of different design proposals for new light cruisers, which would be in accordance with the limitations set by the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936.
Having realized that all outstanding requirements couldn&rsquot be met with a limited displacement design, the decision was eventually made to adopt a smaller light cruiser design to act as a destroyer leader. As a result, the proposed design of what would become the Atlanta-class was selected for construction, with an initial order for four ships being issued in April 1939, followed by a second order for four further vessels in September 1940.
USS Atlanta, the lead ship of the class, was laid down on 22 April 1940 in Kearny, New Jersey and was subsequently commissioned into service in December of the following year, shortly after the US&rsquo entry into WWII. Atlanta would soon receive its baptism by fire, taking part in the Battle of Midway in June 1942 while on screening duty for American aircraft carriers.
USS Atlanta also took part in heavy fighting during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, as well as the subsequent Naval Battle of Guadalcanal. During the latter, USS Atlanta received mortal damage during a Japanese night attack, both from enemy as well as friendly fire. Although the USS Atlanta made it through the night, it became clear the next morning that the damage was too severe to deal with and the order for scuttling was issued on 13 November 1942. Atlanta was subsequently struck from the Naval Register in January of the following year.
In War Thunder, USS Atlanta will be a new light cruiser, coming to rank IV of the American naval tree with the release of update 1.91. Being a highly requested addition to War Thunder naval forces, USS Atlanta will offer its future captains quite an unusual set of traits, unique to this warship in particular, giving it a high degree of versatility.
USS Atlanta&rsquos standout feature is its immediately noticeable large number of primary weapons. In fact, it pretty much defines the ship&rsquos silhouette! Armed with a whopping eight double 5-inch (127mm) cannons, USS Atlanta will become the most heavily armed ship in War Thunder, at least as far as primary weapons count is concerned.
The American 5-inch guns, often found on destroyers, are proven tools of destruction in War Thunder naval battles. Their dual-purpose nature makes them extremely versatile, giving the ship which is equipped with them the capability to effectively engage both surface targets as well as aircraft. Therefore, having a total of 16 of these lethal cannons will mean that aspiring Atlanta captains will be formidable foes when engaging lighter vessels, destroyers and aircraft.
Versatile and vigilant are exactly what captains of USS Atlanta will have to be in battle. Due to the ship only having four triple 28mm cannons acting as auxiliary weaponry, captains will more often than not have to take care of aerial threats themselves in the heat of battle or risk succumbing to an air strike. Fortunately, however, with the help of proximity-fused HE-VT rounds, you&rsquore more than well equipped to do so!
However, USS Atlanta is quite poorly protected for a light cruiser. With her armored belt only being a maximum of 3.75 inches (95mm), Atlanta is unable to sustain concentrated enemy fire for a prolonged period of time.
Taking on heavy, and in some cases, light cruisers may not be the best of ideas when commanding USS Atlanta not only due to her lackluster protection, but also due to the limited damage which the 5-inch cannons can inflict upon more heavily armored targets. In such cases, captains will want to rely on Atlanta&rsquos good mobility, since the ship can reach a top speed of 32.5 knots (60 km/h), to get them out of a tight spot.
USS Atlanta has set course for players&rsquo ports and is expected to arrive with the release of War Thunder update 1.91. In the meantime, be sure to stay tuned to the news for all the latest developments regarding the next update. Until then, captains!
Civil War: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies
"The matter of publishing the official records of the Civil War seems to have been considered by Congress as early as May 19, 1864 (Stat. L. v. 13, p. 406)." Other acts followed from time to time, and the work was carried on in a more or less desultory fashion until December 14, 1877, when Captain Robert N. Scott, later lieutenant-colonel, was detailed to take charge of the work. At that time, 47 of the 79 volumes, later known as "preliminary prints" (W45.9:) had been compiled and 30 copies of each had been printed.
Under Colonel Scott, the work was systematized and the plan finally adopted which has been carried on throughout the entire set know as the Official records. According to this plan, 4 series were issued as follows:
Series 1 Formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating especially thereto. Series 2 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war and, so far as the military authorities were concerned, to state or political prisoners. Series 3 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Union authorities, embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials, not relating especially to the subjects of the 1st and 2d series. It embraces the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments the calls for troops and the correspondence between the national and the several State authorities. Series 4 Correspondence, orders, reports and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the 3d series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.
After the death of Colonel Scott, Col. H. M. Lazelle was placed in charge, and later a Board of Publication carried on the work under direction of the Secretary of War. The name most closely associated with the work from its inception to its completion is that of Joseph W. Kirkley, the compiler under whose personal examination each volume passed. In 1902, a revised edition of the additions and corrections, already printed with the general index (W45.5:130), was issued, a separate pamphlet for each volume, for insertion in the volumes of the set. The War Records Office (W45.) was merged into the Record and Pension Office, July 1, 1899. Previous to that time, of the total number of volumes of the Rebellion records, 116 volumes, that is, serial numbers 1 to 118, had been published by the War Records Office. The remaining 11 volumes and the general index were issued by the Record and Pension Office. It has seemed wise not to divide the few last volumes from the remainder of the set, hence, they are all entered under W45.5: The serial numbers as given below are the numbers assigned to the set by the issuing office as found in circular issued July 1, 1902, and also in preceding circulars. Most of the sets issued were bound in black cloth and, after series 1, v. 23 (serial no. 35), had the serial number stamped on the back, consequently, in the following list the serial numbers beginning with 36 are not bracketed.1909 Checklist, p. 1391.
(W45.7: and W45.8:) ["The atlas of the Official records consists of maps of battlefields, cities and their defenses, and parts of the country traversed by the armies. Parts 1, 25, and 26 contain view of besieged cities, forts, etc., and pt. 35 gives the uniforms and flags or the two armies, and other information. The location of Confederate troops or defenses is swhown in red and that of the Union troops in blue. This compilation was the work of Calvin D. Cowles. A sheet of additions and corrections was issued in 1902 to be inserted in the part containing the title-page, index, etc." W45.7:Part 1 and W45.7:Part 2 and Serial set 29981 and Serial set 29982.] 1909 Checklist, p. 1394. The atlas is not included in the reprint edition.
USS Atlanta CL51, LD-002r 3D printed in 1/450 Scale
This is my second attempt at building the USS Atlanta. My first was made using a DaVinci Mini. I liked it at the time but my recent efforts using the LD-002r to print fine details, blow it away and I like the Atlanta design too much to settle.
This was my first LD-002r print using opaque resin, I’m still on the fence about it. In Chitubox I increase the level exposure time from 6 seconds (that I used with clear resins) to 8 seconds but I still found that the most delicate parts failed to print and some layer de lamination was occurring. To my understanding that should signal increasing the exposure time a bit more, however the larger superstructure objects still came out just a tad larger than they should have and that suggests too long an exposure time… Perhaps the opaque resins are not as good rendering filigree design elements as the clear?
Below are the LD-002r prints I used to create USS Atlanta. I was very tempted to print the hull with the LD-002r as well, but chickened out. I decided to stick with what I knew and used my Ender 3 Pro. All said, no big surprises during the printing phase.
A few parts aren’t 3D printed: the main radar and crane cabling are both combinations of photo etch and stretched plastic sprue, the doors on the superstructure are photo etch, the jackstaff and flagstaff are both stretched sprue as is all the rigging.
One fail I experienced on this build was an attempt to drill (by hand) port holes into the bridge of the main superstructure. I didn’t think I could pull it off but wanted to try… They were not precisely equidistant, of uniform size or level and the defects were glaringly obvious. You can see the necessary repairs in one of the built but not yet primed shots. Over all though, this project went smooth and fast. For a fairly small amount of time and effort this version of Atlanta is head and shoulders above my first.
My first USS Atlanta attempt made with just the DaVinci Mini, spare PE and wire.
USS ATLANTA (CL-51)
This is the deepest and most challenging wreck that is dived in the Solomons and is the only divable wreck sunk form the naval engagement know as “The Barroom Brawl”.
On the 12th November a Japanese surface force, made up of two battleships, one cruiser and six destroyers, was detected steaming south toward Guadalcanal to shell Henderson Field.
Admiral Callaghan’s support group (including the Atlanta) was to “cover retiring transports and cargo vessels against enemy attack.” They departed Lunga Point at about 1800 and steamed eastward through Sealark Channel, covering the withdrawal of the transports. An hour before midnight, Callaghan’s ships reversed course and headed westward.
USS Helena’s radar picked up the first contact with the Japanese Battle Group at a range of 26,000yd (24,000m). As the range closed, Atlanta’s surface search radar, followed by her gunnery radars, picked up a contact on the enemy ships.
Admiral Callaghan’s order for a course change caused problems immediately, as Atlanta had to turn left immediately to avoid a collision with one of the four destroyers in the van, the latter having apparently executed a “ships left” rather than “column left” movement. As Atlanta began moving to resume her station ahead of San Francisco, Akatsuki illuminated the Atlanta and fired torpedoes. Atlanta shifted her battery to fire at the enemy destroyer, opening fire at a range of about 1,600yd (1,500m).
As two other Japanese destroyers crossed her line, Atlanta engaged both with her forward 5in (130mm) mounts, while her after mounts continued to blast away at the illuminated ship. In addition, an unidentified assailant also opened up on the light cruiser from the northeast. At about that time, at least one of Akatsuki’s torpedoes plowed into Atlanta’s forward engine room from the port side. She lost all but auxiliary diesel power, suffered the interruption of her gunfire, and had to shift steering control to the steering engine room aft. Atlanta shot out Akatsuki’s searchlight, and the enemy ship, battered by San Francisco’s gunfire as well, sank with all hands.
Soon after her duel with Akatsuki, Atlanta was hit by an estimated 19 8in (200mm) shells when San Francisco, “in the urgency of battle, darkness, and confused intermingling of friend or foe”, fired at her. Though almost all of the shells passed through the thin skin of the ship without detonating, scattering green dye, fragments from their impact killed many men, including Admiral Scott and members of his staff. Atlanta prepared to return fire on her new assailant, but San Francisco’s own gun flashes disclosed a distinctly “non-Japanese hull profile” that resulted in a suspension of those efforts.
After the 8in (200mm) fire ceased, Atlanta’s Captain Jenkins took stock of the situation, and, having only a minor foot wound, made his way aft to Battle II. His ship was badly battered, largely powerless, down by the head and listing slightly to port, and a third of his crew was dead or missing. As the battle continued, the light cruiser’s men began clearing debris, jettisoning topside weight to correct the list, reducing the volume of sea water in the ship, and tending the many wounded.
Daylight revealed the presence nearby of three burning American destroyers, the disabled Portland, and the abandoned hulk of Yudachi, which Portland summarily dispatched with three salvoes. Atlanta, drifting toward the enemy-held shore east of Cape Esperance, dropped her starboard anchor, and her captain sent a message to Portland explaining the light cruiser’s condition. Boats from Guadalcanal came out to take her most critically wounded. By mid-morning, all of those had been taken.
The Bobolink arrived at 0930 on 13 November, took Atlanta under tow, made harder by the cruiser’s still lowered anchor, and headed toward Lunga Point. Atlanta reached Kukum about 1400, at which point Captain Jenkins conferred with his remaining officers. As Jenkins, who was later awarded a Navy Cross for his heroism during the battle, later wrote, “It was by now apparent that efforts to save the ship were useless, and that the water was gaining steadily.” Even had sufficient salvage facilities been available, he allowed, the severe damage she had taken would have made it difficult to save the ship. Authorized by Commander, South Pacific Forces, to act at his own discretion regarding the destruction of the ship, Jenkins ordered that Atlanta be abandoned and sunk with a demolition charge.
Accordingly, all remaining men except the captain and a demolition party boarded Higgins boats sent out from Guadalcanal for the purpose. After the charge had been set and exploded, the last men left the battered ship. Ultimately, at 2015 on 13 November 1942, Atlanta sank 3mi (5km) west of Lunga Point in about 400ft (120m) of water.